The idea that representatives should not only represent the political or economic interests of their constituents, but should also reflect the descriptive characteristics of the population.
Can relate to any form of identity, including gender.
Voluntary party quotas (Europe)
Candidate quotas (Latin America, Africa)
Reserved seats (South Asia)
Relevance of parties
Parties control agenda in U.S.
Parties control lists in Europe
Relevance of ideology
Generous family benefits
“Socialized child rearing”
Spending (Chhattopadhyay and Duflo)
Attitudes (Beaman et. al.)
Beaman et. al.
Dittmar et. al.