Dependent variable–Effect or outcome that we want to explain
Independent variable–The factors that explain/cause the outcome; also referred to as an “explanatory variable”
How would you “operationalize” the study of these questions with independent and dependent variables?
Set of intervening factors or variables (or ‘causal sequence’) that links an independent variable to a dependent variable
The story of the relationship between variables
The “because” of the relationship
Does correlation = causation?
Spurious correlation occurs when two variables appear to be directly linked in a cause-effect relationship but in fact (a) there is no causal link whatsoever; or (b) they are linked indirectly by some other causal variable or variables
Occurs when we cannot specify or demonstrate the mechanism
Foreign aid and political stability (natural disasters)
Civil society and democracy (wealth)
Electoral institutions and economic performance (colonialism)